Tools of the Trade Training Material

Tools of the Trade (4-14-2013)

Located on our Command Vehicle are animal oxygen masks.
After reviewing the videos you will realize the usefullness of the masks. People (our customers) can get very attached to their pets. The masks will give use the ability to provide the best care possible.

Video on the reason why we need the masks:

News video clip on masks:

Quick video on how to administer the masks:                             
Tools of the Trade (3-8-2013)

Wikipedia Definition of Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, with other hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide. Natural gas is an important energy source to provide heating and electricity.

In order to assist in detecting leaks, a minute amount of odorant is added to the otherwise colorless and almost odorless gas used by consumers. The odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs, due to the added tert-Butylthiol (t-butyl mercaptan). Sometimes a related compound, thiophane may be used in the mixture. Situations in which an odorant that is added to natural gas can be detected by analytical instrumentation, but cannot be properly detected by an observer with a normal sense of smell, have occurred in the natural gas industry. This is caused by odor masking, when one odorant overpowers the sensation of another. As of 2011, the industry is conducting research on the causes of odor masking.

Explosions caused by natural gas leaks occur a few times each year. Individual homes, small businesses and other structures are most frequently affected when an internal leak builds up gas inside the structure. Frequently, the blast will be enough to significantly damage a building but leave it standing. In these cases, the people inside tend to have minor to moderate injuries. Occasionally, the gas can collect in high enough quantities to cause a deadly explosion, disintegrating one or more buildings in the process. The gas usually dissipates readily outdoors, but can sometimes collect in dangerous quantities if flow rates are high enough. However, considering the tens of millions of structures that use the fuel, the individual risk of using natural gas is very low.

Natural gas heating systems are a minor source of carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. According to the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (2008), 56 per cent of unintentional deaths from non-fire CO poisoning were associated with engine-driven tools like gas-powered generators and lawn mowers. Natural gas heating systems accounted for 4 per cent of these deaths. Improvements in natural gas furnace designs have greatly reduced CO poisoning concerns. Detectors are also available that warn of carbon monoxide and/or explosive gas.
Sensit Gold 4 Gas Leak Detector
The Sensit Gold gas leak detector is a versatile gas detection instrument, designed to provide personal protection from potentially hazardous conditions and help find the source of combustible gases fast.

Highly sensitive leak detection
Display up to 4 gases
LEL, optional ppm & % volume
Carbon monoxide
Hydrogen sulfide
Internal pump & water/dust filters
Infrared downloading
Lowest cost, long life sensors
LED warning lights
Bright backlit LCD display
Optional air free CO test
Field calibration, calibration alert and calibration memory
Programmable auto shut off
Specifications - Instrument
Battery Alkaline batteries, 16 hours continuous use
Approvals Class I, Div I, Groups C&D, Hazardous Location T4 with alkaline batteries
Size 3.0" x 11.5" x 2.32"
Weight 1.2 pounds

Sensit product information
Below is a link that provides product introduction, quick start guide, operation manual and contact information:

 Tools of the Trade 


Definition of Halligan Bar;

A Halligan bar (also called a Halligan tool or Hallagan, and is often referred to as a Hooligan Tool in various British and Australian fire services) is a forcible entry tool used by firefighters and law enforcement.


The tool was designed by and named after a New York City Fire Department First Deputy Chief named Hugh Halligan in 1948. Later that year the first prototype of the Halligan bar was made by Peter Clarke (a blacksmith). Despite being invented by one of its members, the FDNY did not initially purchase the tool because of a perceived conflict of interest.The City of Boston Fire Department was the first major customer of the Halligan, purchasing one for every fire company in the city. The tool was popular enough that members of New York ladder companies went out and bought it with their own money until the department ultimately decided to purchase the tool.

Design and use

Based on the earlier Kelly tool, the Halligan is a multipurpose tool for prying, twisting, punching, or striking. It consists of a claw (or fork), a blade (wedge or adze), and a tapered pick, which is especially useful in quickly breaching many types of locked doors. Either the adze end or fork end of the tool can be used to break through the latch of a swinging door by forcing the tool between the door and door jamb and prying the two apart, striking it with a sledgehammer or a flat-head axe.
The pick can be placed into the shackle (or eye) of a padlock or hasp and twisted or pried to break it free. It can also be driven into a roof to provide a foothold for firefighters engaged in vertical ventilation. Using a K-tool and the adze end, a lock cylinder can easily be pulled. The fork end is routinely used to shut off gas meter valves. There are many other uses of the Halligan tool, including vehicle extrication and opening of walls.

One variant of the Halligan has a heavy sliding collar on the shaft. Once the prying end of the tool is wedged into position, the sliding 'hammer' is used to force the wedge, allowing for proper seating before prying. The adze end is also assisted by using the sliding hammer to generate forced traction on a hooked cylinder. Another variant has an end that resembles a lever-type can opener, used for making large holes for access or ventilation in sheet metal.

The true Halligan is a forged tool, of one piece construction, available in a number of lengths (typically 18 to 54 inches), and of various materials, including titanium, Beryllium copper or stainless steel. Carrying straps or rings can be found. The 18-inch Halligan is often referred to as an officer's tool.

A Halligan bar and a flathead axe can be joined together (and partially interlocked, head-to-toe) to form what is known as a married set, set of irons or simply The Irons. This combination of tools is most common within the fire service. However the Halligan may also be married with a Halligan hook, sledge hammer or The Pig as an alternative. 


Tools of the Trade Training Videos:  (1:05 min-Halligan Bar Demonstration Video)  (1:34 min - Halligan Bar Pro-Bar Wall Breach)

A collection of forcible entry techniques using the Halligan tool. Choose any one of the 66 videos and the times vary on each video.

                                         Tools of the Trade 

Definition of a Chimney fire;

A chimney fire is the combustion (burning) of residue deposits referred to as creosote, on the inner surfaces of chimney tiles, flue liners, stove pipes, etc. The process begins with the incomplete combustion of fuel in the attached appliance, usually a wood or coal stove. The unburned volatiles are heated to the vapor state but not consumed due to a lack of adequate heat and oxygen within the appliance. These volatile distillates escape into the chimney, where they contact cooler surfaces and condense into tar-like deposits. Successive layers accumulate until either the chimney plugs completely, or the chimney reaches a temperature and oxygen level at which the deposit will ignite. Due to the concentrated level of volatile material now present, these fires tend to burn very hot.[1] The high temperatures stress the mechanical strength of the chimney causing distortion of metal structures, and failure of ceramic structures.

Causes of the deposits which lead to chimney fires include using green/wet fuels, the operation of appliances with insufficient air intake, and low operating temperatures for prolonged periods followed by hot fires. Such practice typically occurs when mild weather periods are followed by cold snaps.

Control includes denial of oxygen, addition of extinguishing agents, and removing heat sources. In case of chimney fire, the local fire department should be called immediately: there is a risk of the chimney collapsing, which could cause the fire to spread to other parts of the building. Additional hazards include the possible buildup of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide[2] within the structure due to restricted flues. 

Tools of the trade Training Videos:   (1:25 min-Great illustration of inside a chimney)     (3:59 min-Good training video)    (8:31 min-Best Chinfex Training Video)

   Tools of the Trade (5-12-2012)

Definition of Cyanide poisoning;

Acute poisoningCyanide poisoning is a form of histotoxic hypoxia because the cells of an organism are unable to use oxygen, primarily through the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. Inhalation of high concentrations of cyanide causes a coma with seizures, apnea, and cardiac arrest, with death following in a matter of minutes.
At lower doses, loss of consciousness may be preceded by general weakness, giddiness, headaches, vertigo, confusion, and perceived difficulty in breathing. At the first stages of unconsciousness, breathing is often sufficient or even rapid, although the state of the victim progresses towards a deep coma, sometimes accompanied by pulmonary edema, and finally cardiac arrest. Skin color goes pink from cyanide-hemoglobin complexes. A fatal dose for humans can be as low as 1.5 mg/kg body weight.

Blood cyanide concentrations may be measured as a means of confirming the diagnosis in hospitalized patients or to assist in the forensic investigation of a criminal poisoning. Cyanide toxicity can occur following the ingestion of large doses of amygdalin (found in almonds and apricot kernels and marketed as an alternative cancer cure), prolonged administration of sodium nitroprusside, and after exposure to gases produced by the combustion of synthetic materials.

Chronic exposure
In addition to pesticide and insecticide, cyanide is contained in tobacco smoke, smoke from building fires and some foods, like almonds, apricot kernel, cassava, yucca, manioc, and apple seeds. Vitamin B12 in the form of hydroxycobalamin, or hydroxocobalamin, may reduce the negative effects of chronic exposure, and a deficiency can lead to negative health effects following exposure.

Exposure to lower levels of cyanide over a long period (e.g., after use of cassava roots as a primary food source in tropical Africa) results in increased blood cyanide levels, which can result in weakness and a variety of symptoms, including permanent paralysis, nervous lesions, hypothyroidism, and miscarriages. Other effects include mild liver and kidney damage.

Treatment of poisoning and antidotes
The United States standard cyanide antidote kit first uses a small inhaled dose of amyl nitrite, followed by intravenous sodium nitrite, followed by intravenous sodium thiosulfate. Hydroxocobalamin is newly approved in the US and is available in Cyanokit antidote kits. Alternative methods of treating cyanide intoxication are used in other countries.

Tools of the Trade Training Videos:

Videos (3 part series)